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The “Evolution of Religion” project is a collaboration of natural and social scientists exploring whether religion has evolutionary origins. If religious beliefs and behaviors promoted survival and reproductive success in our ancestral past, then they may have been favored by natural selection over human evolutionary history. This would mean that there is an adaptive logic to religious beliefs and behaviors, despite their apparent costs in time and resources, and that religion evolved as a natural product of Darwinian selection. We are exploring this hypothesis using methods developed in experimental psychology, anthropology, and evolutionary biology.